What is Biotechnology and how does it work?(Application&Types)

By | March 26, 2020

What is biotechnology and how does it work? Biotechnology is the use of biological systems found in living organisms, or the use of living organisms to achieve technological progress and adapt these technologies to various fields.

These include the applications in various fields such as agricultural practice to the medical sector. It includes not only applications in the living-related areas, but also in any other region where the information obtained from the biological side of the body can be applied.

Biotechnology is especially important when it comes to developing small chemical tools, as many of the tools that biotechnology uses are on the cellular level. In an effort to understand more about biotechnology, here are its types, examples, and applications. What is biotechnology and how does it work?

Biotechnology as a biological processes of microorganisms has been used more than 5000 years to produce healthy foods such as bread and cheese and conserve dairy products.” What is biotechnology and how does it work?

Find out the Types of Biotechnology

1. Medical biotechnology

Medical biotechnology is the use of living cells and other cellular materials to improve human health. Basically, it is used to find a cure, as well as to get rid of and prevent diseases.

The science involved includes using these tools to research to find different or more effective ways to maintain human health, understand the pathogen, and understand human cell biology.

Here, the technique is used to produce pharmaceutical drugs as well as other chemicals to combat the disease. It includes studying bacteria, plant and animal cells to understand how they work at the basic level first.

In fact, it often involves studying DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) to learn how to deal with the genetic makeup of cells to increase the production of useful traits that humans may find beneficial, such as insulin production. In general, the field leads to the development of new drugs and new treatments in the field.


Vaccines are chemicals that stimulate the body’s immune system to fight pathogens when they attack the body. They do this by inserting diluted (weak) copies of the disease into the bloodstream of the body.

This causes the body to react as if to be under attack from the uninhibited version of the disease. The body fights weak pathogens and through the process it observes the cellular structure of pathogens and causes some cells to “remember” the disease and store information inside the body.

When an individual experiences actual illness, his body immediately recognizes it and quickly defends itself, since he already has information about him. This translates into a faster recovery and less symptomatic time.

Attenuated pathogens are extracted using biotechnology techniques such as growing antigenic proteins in GM cultures. One example is the production of a lymphoma vaccine using genetically modified tobacco plants designed to display RNA (a chemical similar to DNA) from malignant (active cancerous) cells.

• Antibiotics
Progress has been made in developing antibiotics that fight human pathogens. Many plants are transplanted and genetically modified to produce antibodies.

The method is more cost-effective than using cells or extracting these antibodies from animals, as plants can produce these antibodies in large quantities.

2. Agricultural biotechnology.
This focuses on developing genetically modified plants in order to increase crop yields or introduce characteristics of these plants that give them an advantage that grows in areas that place a kind of stress on the plant, knowledge, weather and pests.

The practice also includes scientists determining a trait, finding the gene that causes it, then putting that gene into another plant to get that trait desired, making it more durable, or producing higher yields than before. .

• Pest resistant crops
He also introduced various techniques for creating crops that naturally express pest resistance properties, making them extremely resistant to pests, rather than having to continue shaking and spraying them with pesticides.

One example is the Bacillus thuringiensis mushroom that is transferred to crops.
The reason for this is that the fungus produces a very effective protein (Bt) against pests such as European cornflakes.

Bt protein is the desired feature that scientists want plants to possess, and for this reason, they have identified the gene that causes the expression of Bt protein in fungi and transported to the atom. Corn then produces protein toxin naturally, which reduces the cost of production by eliminating the cost of crop dust with pesticides.

Breeding plants and animals
Selective reproduction has been a practice practiced by humans since the beginning of cultivation. The practice is to choose animals with desirable properties to breed with each other, so that the resulting offspring also express these traits.

The desirable properties included large animals, more disease-resistant animals, and more pets, all aiming to make the cultivation process as profitable as possible.

This practice was moved to the molecular level for the same purpose. Various attributes are chosen among animals and once the genetic markers are identified, they are animated.


Application of Biotechnology the right way

1. Resistance to abiotic stress
In fact, there is very little arable land, with some estimates putting it at around 20%. With the increase in the world population, it is necessary that the sources of food available are as effective as possible to produce the maximum amount of food in the smallest possible space. It is also necessary to cultivate crops to make use of the least cultivable regions in the world.

This means that it is necessary to develop cultures that can deal with these abiotic stresses, such as salinity, drought and freezing cold. In Africa and the Middle East, for example, where the climate can be relentless, the practice has played an important role in the development of crops that can withstand prevailing adverse climates.

2. Industrial biotechnology
The industrial applications of biotechnology range from the production of cellular structures to the production of biological elements for different uses. Some examples include the creation of some new materials in the wine and beer-making and construction industry, laundry detergents and personal care products.

3. Nutrient supplementation
One of the main uses of biotechnology is the infusion of nutrients in food in situations like aid. Thus, it provides heavy and nutritious foods needed in such situations. An example of this application is the production of golden rice, where the rice is infused with beta-carotene. Rice has vitamin A, which the body can synthesize easily.

4. Resistance fibers
One of the materials with the greatest tensile strength is cobwebs. Among other materials with the same cross-sectional width, cobwebs may have more tensile strength before breaking than steel. This silk created a lot of interest with the possible production of silk materials, including bulletproof vests. Silk is used because it is stronger than Kevlar (the most used material for making armor).

Biotechnological techniques have been used to select the genes found in spiders and infused in goats to produce silk proteins in their milk. With this initiative in hand, it can facilitates the production, as goats are much easier to handle compared to spiders, and silk production through milk also helps to make processing and handling much easier compared to handling. of real silk threads.

5. Biofuels
Energy production sector can be considered one of the biggest applications of biotechnology. Due to fears about the decline of petroleum resources in the world and their related environmental impacts, it is necessary to protect the future of the world by seeking alternative and ecological sources of fuel. Biotechnology allows this to happen with advances such as the use of corn to produce fuel for the operation of car engines. These fuels are good for the environment, as they do not produce greenhouse gases.

6. Health care
Application of Biotechnology in the health sector is the development of pharmaceutical products that have proved problematic to produce through other conventional means due to problems of purity.


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